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Letters From Hugh Young from 1847 - 1858

Transcribed and contributed by Bruce P. Shields bshields@pwshift.com 


H. Young to Alexander Shields; dated Laurieston, March 17th, 1847

Dear Brother and Sister,
Your very long and friendly letter of the 31st December reached this in safety on the 17th of February, having had like its predecessor rather a tedious passage. It gave us great pleasure to learn that you both continue in the enjoyment of a measure of health and comfort, that your family are favoured with prosperity and that you have the satisfaction of seeing them comfortably and respectably settled in the world. I trust your new relations [Boyds?] will be a comfort to you. I was in
Glasgow since I received your letter and called upon Mr. Stiele; I did not see himself, but I had a long conversation with Mrs. Steele, and saw a number of their children. I found her a very pleasant and intelligent person. She gave me a very flattering account of your circumstances and of the respect in which you and your family are held in the place where you live, and in the community of which you are members. 

I am glad in the prospect (at last) of getting the small parcel I intended forewarded to you. I have talked so much about it that I fear I have raised your expectations too high, and that you will of course meet with a disappointment. I think I hear some one of you saying when its contents are turned out, "And is that all?" It is a question in Philosophy, "Which is greater, the pleasure of hope or the pleasure of enjoyment." Now if the pleasure of enjoyment is very small, you must remember how great has been the pleasure of hope for these two or three years past, and make the best of it by adding the one to the other.

In this family we are nearly in the same circumstances as when I wrote last. Christina was very unwell for two or three weeks, and her Mother was laid up with fatigue and a bad cold for a few days, otherwise we have all enjoyed a measure of health through the winter. Margaret continues in her situation. She likes it well, and finds herself very comfortable. Alexander, I am sorry to say, has not been so well for some time. He is subject to cold, and has had frequently a bad cough, and pain in his breast. He has had too much to do this winter. Besides three classes in College, he has had four or five hours of private teaching in families. As the boys he teaches are at public classes through the day, he requires to be much exposed at night, which is very much against him. As the Session of College will soon ;be over and the weather will become milder, we have hope that his health may improve. How many young men set out with a view to the Christian Ministry, and never reach the object of their desire and how many more enter upon it with shattered constitutions from which they never fully recover.

Immediately on receiving your letter, I wrote to Leelone, with a view to collect as much information regarding our relations in that quarter as possible, both for my own satisfaction, and also that I might have something new to transmit to you, and I am happy to say that I had a letter yesterday from Francis's Widow. I shall not give you any extract from it, but rather send it entire as an opportunity can be obtained. There are some things in it in which you will feel an interest. Relations and acquaintances are dropping away, and our appointed time will soon arrive. How important to have our Loins girded and our lamps burning, to be in the discharge of present duty, "Looking and waiting for the coming of the Savior"--- 

You have certainly great cause of thankfulness to the Bountiful giver of all good, that you and the many inhabitants of your adopted country are favoured with an abundance of the necessaries of life. In many parts of Great Britain and Ireland it is far otherwise. The nearly total loss of the Potatoe crop, and the great deficiency of several of the other crops, have brought us into an alarming state. A very severe winter too has also tended to increase the Calamity. Already, Famine and Pestilence (its usual attendant) prevail extensively in Ireland, and it is supposed that upwards of Eight Millions Stirling of the public money will be required for the Support of that unhappy country till September. Already upwards of a Hundred Thousand in the Highlands of Scotland are supported by Charity. And it is supposed that before harvest the number will be encreased by upwards of fourfold. All kinds of provisions are very high. The barrel of American flour is at present about Two Guineas. "He turneth a fruitful land into barreness, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein." [Psalm 107:34] Owing to the formation of Railways, Labour is plenty and wages are high, so that labourers here are not suffering so much, but Trades people, and such as we are who have a limited income, and no way of improving it are feeling the pressure of the times very much. We have still the necessaries of life, but I fear if the times do not improve we shall not be able to go on with the Education of the younger girls.

I think, upon the whole, our church in Scotland is fully keeping her ground, though we cannot boast of great prosperity. A Mr. McMeikan[?] has been ordained to a new congregation at Lesmahagow; a Mr. Harkness is about to be ordained at Colmonel, and a Mr. Morrison brought up in this Congregation, has accepted a call to Eskdalemuir and Ettrick. We have lately ordained two missionaries, a Mr. John McLachlan who has gone to Canada to succeed the Late Mr. McReady, and a Mr. Cunningham who has gone to labour among the Jews in London. Mr. Cunningham is the Author of the volume on Covenanting which you will find in the parcel; he is a man of great talent and Learning throughout, a very popular preacher. From a Report sent you will learn something of the difficulty he has to encounter from the obstinacy and unbelief of the posterity of Abraham. We are at present supporting five Missionaries in all: two in Canada, two in New Zealand, and one in London.
Our Young people are all at present so much engaged with their lessons that they excuse themselves from Writing; I shall endeavour to make them fulfil their promise, if spared, at some future time.

We have at present an excellent seed time. Beans and oats are nearly all sown, and the Farmers in the Kerse are busy preparing their barly ground. There will be very few potatoes planted this season; any seed that can be got sells at a most extravagant price. Three shillings is a present the price of our small peck, which would amount to somewhere about Four pounds Stirling for the Old Airshire boll.

Last Sabbath was the anniversary of my ordination and concluded a quarter of a Century of my Ministry. Of about ninety who then stood on the communion roll, only Eleven are now on it, and five of them are so infirm with age, that they are not likely ever again to meet with us in the house of God here below. Of the ninety who then formed the Congregation, only Nineteen, so far as I know, are now alive. With a view to bring some of these things before the Congregation I preached from Heb.xiii:14 "Here we have no continuing City, but we seek one to come." We have at present nearly the same number of Communicants as when I came here; our number at present is Ninety three and there was bout the same number of aged and infirm then as now. It is so far good that we have kept our ground. The Principles of the Reformation were never popular in this district. This quarter has ever been the stronghold of the Secession and Voluntaryism is now the order of the day. Besides, since the commencement of what is called the Church Extension scheme, and the disruption of the Church of Scotland, there have been at least seventeen new places of public worship erected within the bounds of this congregation so that in these times of Laxity both in principle and Morality, we need not look for great increase. 
As nothing else occurs worth Communicating, and as my sight is becoming unsteady, I shall conclude at this time. Write again when you can make it convenient. Anna and the Children all send their kindest regards to you all, and with sincere desires for your every good, I am, Dear Brother and Sister, your affectionate Brother, Hugh Young.

Glasgow, March 29th, 1847.
Dear Friends,
Being at
Glasgow preaching yesterday and finding the parcel still here, I open it to say that since the above was written, The Rev. Mr. Carslow our Minister at Airdrie has been removed by death. Mr. Carslow was a lineal descendant by the Mother's side from the Howies of Lochgoin. He was a useful and devoted Minister of the gospel. His death was sudden. It is a loud call to survivors, "Be Ye also ready." Yours &c, Hugh Young.

H.Young to Alex. Shields, dated Laurieston (Falkirk) Jan.y 17th 1849

Dear Brother & Sister,
I am grieved to think that you have been so long of hearing from relations in
Scotland, many of whom I have no doubt still find a place in your affections; and I can scarcely free myself from a charge of undutifulness in having two of your letters lying unanswered. Mr. Robert's letter of the 21st Feb. reached me on the 27th of March, and yours of the 26th December reached this in safety only 15 days after date. I was much pleased with Mr. Robert's letter, and I think that the hand writing, the orthography, and especially the ease with which he expresses himself, all bespeak him a young man of very considerable promise. I hope he may be spared to prosecute his studies, and that in due time he may be a faithful, and useful minister of the Gospel. I certainly ought to have answered his letter long ago, especially as it was his first to me.

During the past year, our Presbytery has been placed in peculiar, and painful circumstances. We have three vacancies in it, all requiring occasionally supply from Ministers. The Rev. Mr. Stevenson late of Stirling was, in May last, deposed for Drunkeness. We had many meetings of Committees and of Presbytery, which, with the supply of vacancies and our ordinary labours at home, rendered the condition of the Remanent members far from being a sinecure. Besides I was purposing month after month to take a run among our relations in the West country, both for my own satisfaction and also that I might be able to give you a circumstantial account of our surviving kindred. A pressure of Labour, however, and a long and dangerous illness, from which I am only as yet partially recovered, have kept me from fulfilling my purpose up till this date. I hope Mr. Robert, my only Nephew whom I never saw, will forgive any apparent neglect, with which his first communication has been treated.
I cannot proceed farther without informing you of the death of our Brother Andrew which took place about a month ago. He had for a considerable time been in a declining state of health, and departed this life on the 16th or 17th of Dec.r last. I was unable to attend the funeral, but Alexander went, and had an opportunity of seeing the Widow and family, and the greater number of our relations in that neighborhood, who were all well and prospering at that time. William Young still survives, and enjoys a measure of health, though Labouring under the infirmities of Old age. Of our mother's seven sons, who all reached manhood, John of
Meadowfoot and myself now only remain. I am very glad to learn that your family are all well and prospering, and that my Dear Sister, who was more than any of our family the companion of my childhood, has been recovered, and enjoys a measure of health. Lang may you be spared a comfort to each other, a centre of meeting, and a source of wise counsel to your family and their offspring.

On the evening of the 28th of October last I was seized with (what was supposed to be) a "Determination" or flowing of blood to the head and slight Symptoms of Paralysis, which I have no doubt was occasioned by over exertion and previous nervous excitement. When engaged in family worship, I felt a difficulty in articulation, but did not pay much attention to it. I slept some during the night and rose early as usual on Sabbath morning, but found myself in a very confused state, and when again I attempted family worship, I found not only that the power of articulating was worse than on the preceding evening, but my recollection was so far affected that in some instances I could not finish the sentence I had begun. It was at once apparent that to go to the Pulpit was altogether out of the question and Medical aid was immediately procured. I was first bled and afterwards severely blistered. I got immediate relief, indeed scarcely had the blood followed the Lancet from the arm, when I found myself better. I was, however, by the means used, together with Low diet to which I was confined for a time, reduced to such a state of weakness that I was confined to bed for about a month, and for six Sabbaths did not attempt any public duty. I have now preached shortly for the last six Sabbaths, but in doing so I am in so far acting contrary to my Medical advisor, who says I ought not to study for some time, nor Preach nor do anything which occasions anxiety or requires mental exertion. I still feel an unpleasant tightness in my head which requires the use of medicine every second or third day to keep it in check. From my present state of health you will readily infer that my days henceforth must be very uncertain, and that it is not unlikely that my removal from the Church on earth may be sudden.

I have been very kindly dealt with. God has given warning and time to prepare. Since I was taken unwell two Ministers in this neighborhood have been almost instantly removed by death, and from the period of the attack were in a state of insensibility. I have been a very unprofitable Labourer in the Lord's vineyard, and feel that I am altogether sinful and polluted in the sight of an infinitely holy God. Yet I am not without hope, that when the earthly house of this Tabernacle is dissolved, I shall through faith in the finished work of the Divine Saviour, be received into the house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. But to have grace "to work while it is Day, the night cometh when no man can work" -- 

The other members of the family have all enjoyed an ordinary measure of health for some time. Anna had a very bad cold for a long time last winter, and her cough was so violent that she several times put up blood, which was rather alarming, but she got quite well again, and has had no return of it since. Margaret who was upwards of two years governess in a Gentleman's family in East Lothian is at home this winter, and gives some assistance to her four younger sisters who are still prosecuting their studies at a female Seminary in this neighborhood. They are now ell advanced in English, French, Music, Drawing, Geography, &c&c and I hope they will be able in due time, if spared, to make a respectable livelihood by teaching others. Alexander was licensed in August last, and has preached every Sabbath since. From his obtaining several prizes during the last two years he spent at College, and one or two of them first prizes where there was strong competition, high expectations were formed of him throughout the church, and I am happy to be able to say that so far as he has gone, they have not been disappointed. I shall say no more of him at present, lest you should accuse me of a little Parental vanity. He is much exposed at present, in traveling round the country, and soon may all our hopes be blasted.

Cholera prevails almost throughout our land at present, and is carrying off great numbers of our population, and those out of all ranks in Society. In Glasgow for a number of days there were upward of two hundred cases daily, and nearly the one half of them proved fatal. Last report, it was considerably abated, and the death were fewer in proportion. In this neighborhood it still prevails, and has been very deadly, but as yet, as far as I know, non of my congregation have been carried off by it. From the abounding of Sin, the Public profanation of the Sabbath, the neglect of divine ordinances, and the countenance known in high places to Popery, we are truly a people ripe for judgement.

The Revolutionary spirit which has prevailed on the Continent of Europe, during the past year, has greatly affected the interests of this country, and Trade and Commerce have been almost at a stand. Many have been unable to find employment, and our poor's rates have become a burden almost intolerable. But we had a good crop, and an excellent harvest, and provisions are moderate in price, which is a great blessing to the poor. There was not a great breadth of Potatoes planted. Perhaps about the one third were diseased.

I have sent your last letter on a tour among our relations, I addressed it to James Hamilton, with instructions to foreward it to his Brother William at Stobbieside, from thence to Meadowfoot, and then to any of the Shields who may survive. I have also requested them to procure for me the address of the family you mention, and the time they purpose to leave this country and to send me out information of your relations (on either side) as they may think will be interesting to you. So that if they attend to my instructions, and I am spared, I may have matter for another letter by the time the Gilmours leave Scotland.

Our Church in this country, I am sorry to say, has been during the past year, apparently under a frown. Two ministers, both sons in law of the Late Mr. Goold of Edinburgh, have been deposed for intemperance. Mr. Henderson, one of them, has gone to America where we learn he is now engaged in teaching. Other two, viz Mr. Wilson of Dundee and Mr. McLeod of Stranraer, have resigned their charges. Mr. Wilson has gained the Free church, I have not heard certainly what Mr. McLeod intends to do. I believe some alienation between them and their congregations occasioned by money matters has been the cause of Separation in both cases. There has been some disturbance in the congregation of Darvel on the subject of signing petitions to the House of Commons, such as against Catholic endowments &c. I fear the Congregation has suffered by it. Mr. Rogerson was lately dangerously ill of Typhus fever, but we heard yesterday that he is recovering. Several of the other ministers have also been laid aside by the affliction for a longer or shorter period, but at present they are all so far as I know convalescent. The signs of the times are worthy of attention. Will the Pope be able to retain his Spiritual power, now that he has been so far shorn of his temporal? And are the present Political earth quakes and "distress of nations" to introduce the day of the Churche's Millenial glory? "Blessed shall they be who shall come to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days" [Daniel 12:12] I shall not see it, but for Jerusalem's sake, and for my brethren and Children's sake, I pray that the Lord my hasten it.

I am glad there is a prospect of some modification in the rate of Postage between Britain and the United States, for it has hitherto been very oppressive. Besides what you pay, every letter I send to you costs one shilling, and every one I receive the same. I was sorry I did not see Mr. Wilson when he was in the country; had I known he was to pass through Sterling, I would gone to meet with him. Mrs. Stiel, so far as I recollect, is the only person I have met, who had seen you since you left the Mother Country. I had almost neglected to state that my sight has been gradually getting weaker and some of the other senses are not so acute as they once were. The Head, I now find, must ere long be taken down, in order to its getting a thorough repair. This is the longest seat I have had at my desk since I was unwell. I feel I have sat too long so I must bid adieu. All here unite in Sincere regards to yourselves and all the members of your family, and with sincerest wishes for your every good, I am your affectionate Brother, Hugh Young

P.S. I think your arrangement about the Farms at your time of life a very wise and judicious one.

From Rev. Hugh Young to Agnes & Alexander Shields (was enveloped)

Laurieston (Falkirk) September 19th, 1849

Dear Brother and Sister,
As you did not hear from me by the family of Gilmour who left
Flemington early in Spring, and as such a length of time has elapsed since, I have no doubt various conjectures have arisen in your minds as to the cause of delay. And from the precarious state of my health when I last wrote, your anxiety may have increased. I mentioned before that when I received your last letter I sent it to our relation in the west; and desired some one of them to furnish me with such information (especially regarding the Shields family) as they might think would be interesting to you. In their usual Dilatory manner, I did not receive any reply till the end of March. I immediatly wrote you and sent the letter to Wm. Hamilton to deliver to the Gilmours, but they had sailed before he could reach them, and my letter was returned. I then thought of delaying till after our meeting of Synod, when I might at least be able to say what part of the Church was to be the sphere in which my Son was to labour. When that was determined, then in the true spirit of Procrastination, it occurred to me, that I might delay till after his ordination. These, with a weakly state of health, are the excuses I have to offer.

My health has made some improvement, but I am not what I once was; I still feel almost daily and unpleasant tightness in my head and the use of medicine is frequently required to keep it in check; Yet I have been enabled in the kindness of Providence to go on with my work, and to preach every Sabbath. The other members of this family have all enjoyed nearly uninterrupted health since I last wrote you. 

About six weeks ago, Alexander when preaching at New Cumnock got himself wet and was seized with Rheumatism in one of his legs especially the knee. He has suffered a good deal from it but still was able to preach. We heard yesterday that he is rather better and has been getting more sleep for some nights past. I am happy to say that Alexander has hitherto been a very acceptable Preacher, and has fully realized the hopes which were entertained respecting him. He had not been long licensed when he got three calls, one from Wishaw, one from Darvel, and one from Dundee. He accepted the one from Darvel, and on the 28th of last month was ordained there co-Pastor with Mr. Rogerson. I preached at Darvel by exchange with Alex'r on the Sabbath before the ordination, and I waited and introduced him on the Sabbath following. I preached on the forenoon from Psalm cxxxii, 16; and his text afternoon was ii Cor iv:7. Mr. Rogerson is now greatly better, and hopes to be able to take a half day occasionly - He was very weakly for a long time and I was feared he would never be able to resume his pulpit labours, and lest the congregation should suffer, they were led to think of a Colleague.
From the first time Alexander preached there, every heart was set on him, and there never was at any stage of the matter a dissenting voice. The settlement has been most agreeable, and it is my earnest prayer the Great Head of Zion may prosper him in his work, and give him many souls for his line.

Margaret and Janet have commenced a Seminary for the Board and Education of young ladies in Kilmarnock, but we cannot as yet tell how they may succeed. They have just made a beginning. As there is now a Railway from Kilmarnock to New Mills, they and Alexander can see each other at little expense, and without much loss of time. 
When lately at
Darvel, I had an opportunity of seeing the greater number of our surviving relations. They were all in the enjoyment of a measure of health. William Young is now a great age, but is wonderfully well. Mrs. Woodburn suffers from weakness of sight but is otherwise well. William Hamilton our aunt Christina's oldest Son is in rather a poor state of health. He is evidently consumptive, but is fully as well at present as he has been for a considerable time past. Uncle Andrew's Son has got into a good situation at Lanfine, and his mother lives with him - they seem very comfortable.

As to the information I obtained respecting your relations of the Shields family, I think I cannot do better than just copy the note which I had from Alexander Young of Meadowfoot, near the end of March last. I believe there has been no particular change since then.

Meadowfoot March 26, 1849
Dear Uncle,
I write you a few lines regarding the Shields; John is at
Louden Castle and is in good health. He keeps the dykes of the park that are left in grass. Mrs Woodburn is in Darvel with her daughter Mrs. Lawson, she is very frail, and she says she would like her Brother to send her a few lines as soon as convenient. Mrs Dow dwells at Howlet Burn near Louden Castle and is in good health. The rest of that family have all gone to the house appointed for all living. I think they will not have heard of Robert's death. He died about the middle of June, 1847, after a lingering illness of six months. I think they will have heard of the death of the other two brothers as they had a letter from Galston about that time.

I am, Dear Uncle,
Your loving Nephew,
Alexander Young

From the above you will see that changes are taking place, and that our relations are from time to time being gathered to their Fathers. From our advanced period of life, our time cannot be far distant. May God of his rich mercy grant that each and all of us may be made ready for the inheritance above.

At our meeting of Synod in May last we had no business of special importance, and I may say the State of the Church in general is very much as when I have written to you on former occasions. We have two Missionaries in Canada, two in New Zealand, and one laboring among the jews in London. In New Zealand they meet with much opposition from the church of England, whose Missionaries have got the natives to believe that none are ministers who have not got Episcopal ordination, and of course that ordinances dispensed by any others are not valid. The jews in London are all heartily set upon "De Lucre" and some of them have told Dr. Cunningham they would talk with him if he would give them ten shillings and hour. He has notwithstanding got a number of Jewish families interested, and he is doing a good deal in instructing the young.

A Mr. McLeod who succeeded Dr. Symington at Stranraer left us last spring and joined the Free Church. He proposes a change of views with regard to Covenant obligation, etc. But many think that an unhappy temper which had alienated the Congregation from him was the chief cause. We have had lately three ordinations, one at Girvan, one at Stirling, and the one at Darvel. I think we have at present 31 ordained Ministers, Seven or eight vacancies, and for or five Preachers. Two are expected o be licensed after the present Session of Hall. I hope your Robert is pushing his way for the Ministry. There is still great need for Labourers, "They are certainly few and the harvest is great."

We have had a rather cold summer and in the High grounds the harvest is late. In this neighborhood however the fields are nearly cleaned, and the crop is very good, only I am sorry to say that within the last week or ten days the Potatoes are failing fast. The mysterious disease seems to be making rapid progress, and the people are taking them up as fast as they can. As they did pretty well last year, there was a great many planted this year, and of course the loss will be the greater.

During the present season the people all had employment and as Meal and bread are very cheap, I think the people in general are in a comfortable and contented condition. We hear much of war abroad, but we have had the enjoyment of peace at home. Cholera has again broke out in many towns and villages, and is very mortal. There is much reason to fear that it will become naturalized to the country and that we may have frequent, if not annual visits of it. I am sorry to learn by the papers that it is also spreading over American and have been many Deaths especially in New York. Has it yet visited your neighborhood?

Mrs. Young's' two brothers are still in Australia and are doing very well so far as we know. Of Alexander Young of England we know very little He has left the farm he rented near Alnwick and has gone farthur South, but whether the change is an advantageous one or not we have not learned. He writes us very seldom. He was with us a night last year, and seemed in good Spirits. We had also a visit of his wife last season. She had been in Edinburgh on business and came out to take a night with us.

Of National movements, and the signs of the times, I need not say anything. You now doubt have access to the means of information as much as we have. Certainly the times are onerous, and I think the time of the Church's deliverance is drawing near, but judgments must proceed and we know not what the Church may have to endure, or what her members may have to suffer ere the day of her prosperity be ushered in, and those we count just be found in present duty. I feel that the period of my usefulness is not likely to be long. My sight is greatly worse since my late illness, and I am now easily fatigued. What is worse, I see little fruit of my ministry, yet trust I have not laboured altogether in vain.

Just as I had finished the above, a Genteel looking person called at the door, and asked for me saying his name was John Young. He is Our Brother James's Second Son and Brother to Alex'r. It is about twenty five years since we heard any thing of him till lately. His history is somewhat particular. About the year 1824 He left his business in Edinburgh, joined a band of strolling players. sometime after his Brother found him in great misery in Dumbarton, almost naked. He brought him here, where we got him clothes, and he then went with Alex'r to St. Andrews, and got into teaching somewhere in that neighborhood, but made a foolish marriage which - with some other imprudences - made it necessary for Alex to leave him to his own resources. It seems he was a teacher for some years in Angusshire and then went to England where he has taught in different places ever since.

It seems he has also been a Wesleyan Preacher for several years, but has now given it up, he says, when he saw the ignorance that prevailed in many places where he was. He got quite an Enthusiastic preacher, often walked or rode many miles preaching three times on Sabbath and back again on Monday for his teaching, till he was worn to a shadow. He saw he could not stand it, and as he got a good situation, he now confines himself to teaching. He has only been here a few hours and I cannot form a very decided judgement of him. This much is evident, that he is well dressed, very intelligent and Gentlemanly in his manner and speaks like a Devoted Christian. A friend of their Mother's has left some money, which made it necessary to try and find him out, and what is remarkable, he and Alexander had been living for a number of years only a small distance from each other and did not know it.

He says he intends to spend this vacation in visiting Darvel and seeing as many of his Father's relations as he can find out. Make our kindest regards to all your family. Say to Robert with my love that I consider it unnecessary to write to him individually as I just address you as a family. We shall all be glad to hear from you soon.

I am, Dear Brother and Sister,
your affectionate Brother, 
Hugh Young

To Mr. Alexander Shields.

H.Young to Alexander Shields dated Laurieston (Falkirk) Nov. 26th, 1851

Dear Brother & Sister,
Your very kind and welcome (though little deserved) letter reached this in safety yesterday morning. I am truly ashamed that we should have been so long in writing either to you or to Mr. Robert. I trusted to Alexander and it seems he trusted to me, and hence it was done by neither. Early last Spring I asked if he had written to his Cousin in
America; he said he had not, and excused himself by saying that so long a period had now elapsed that he did not know where a letter would find him. I gave him your address, saying that if Mr. Robert had not returned home you would forward a letter to him. He then said he would write very soon, but about that time he was seized with Influenza which put it out of his power to do any thing beyond necessary duty: He continued to preach, though with difficulty till about the beginning of July when over exertion (in his rather weakly state) brought on a smart attack of inflammation, which laid him aside for a week or two. After bleeding and using other necessary means, he went a short time to the sea side, where his health greatly improved, and in September he took a jaunt to London to the Exhibition, and I am happy to say he is at present in the enjoyment of excellent health; and fully retains the popularity with which he commenced his Ministerial labours.

His own people almost idolize him, and whenever he is called to preach, he commands a large audience: but he is a miserable correspondent and I cannot promise you much from him in that way. His Mother and Sisters all complain of him; indeed it is like pulling an eye tooth to get a letter Drawn out of him, except on business. I met him in Synod beginning of October, and as I learned that he had not written, I determined to do so myself, but my engagements for the last month were such as to render it inconvenient, but I had resolved to write by this Mail, although I had not heard from you. Though I did not write I can truly say I was not unmindful of you, for scarcely a day ever passes without you being present in my mind. Having thus (Old Adam like) endeavoured to throw the sin a little off my own shoulders, I must end my apology.

It always gives us great pleasure and satisfaction to learn that you are well and enjoying the comforts not only of this life, but that you are also favoured with the ordinances of grace, and it must be a source of great comfort to you to see your family all walking in the truth, and that one of them has the prospect of serving God in the holy ministry. There were two students from America attending Professor Symington during last Session of Hall. One of them I think is already licensed. Would your son not think of coming over and availing himself of a similar privilege. I am sure he might spend a season very profitably in old Scotland and I know many would be glad to see him. I saw lately in an account of one of the sections of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in America that a Mr. Shields Student of divinity, has with some other been examined, but as he was said to belong to the "General Assembly Presbyterian Church," I could not determine whether it was my Nephew or not. At our late meeting of Synod there was with us a Mr. or Dr. Wilson from Cincinnati, but as there was some doubt as how he stood with regard to the Synod he had been connected with, hew was only asked as a matter of Courtesy to sit among us, without taking part in the business of Synod.

For the last twelve months my own general health has been considerably improved, though not in a very satisfactory state. I am obliged to use medicine almost weekly to prevent giddiness and bile. My sight continues much the same; I have entirely lost the sight of one eye for several years, and I am ordered by the most celebrated occulists to give as much ease as possible to the other, lest it also should fail me. For a long time the weak eye gave me little uneasiness and in appearance could scarcely be distinguished from the other, but for some months past it has been much subject to inflammation, and sometimes for a day or two, I find it necessary to abstain from reading or writing altogether or nearly so. The time is passing away, and I look forward with hope to the time when the old Tabernacle shall be taken down, in order to be reared up again, "fashioned like unto Christ's glorious body."

Matters do not prosper well in the Congregation. I think I mentioned to you formerly a most distressing case of discipline what occurred among us in 1848, and it still has an injurious influence. The congregation, which was always small was much hurt by it. I could not avoid taking part with what I considered the injured party, and of course got much illwill from the other party; a number left us, and some are likely never to return. Still, I am happy to say that no fault was ever found with my preaching, nor so far as I know, was there ever an insinuation thrown out affecting my moral character. And in worldly circumstances I am more easy at present than at any time former period: Though the Congregation is not able at present to support me liberally, yet Providence has raised up for us many kind friends, and we have had several Boarders which are a great help to us. The Gentleman who was with us upwards of twelve years left in the Spring of /50; but we very soon got a Lady in his place and we have two young ladies who have been with us for a length of time for their education.
Mrs. Young continues to enjoy excellent health; she is not so confined now as she once was. She was from home among friends two weeks in harvest, and she was lately two weeks at
Darvel and Kilmarnock, and had the opportunity of attending the communion at Darvel. She came home last Saturday, and left Alexander and the Girls who are in the west country all well. The Congregation at Darvel is at present in a prosperous state, and the breach which took place towards the close of Mr. Rogerson's ministry about signing petitions to the parliament, seem to be nearly healed. I think I mentioned formerly that Margaret, our oldest daughter, had commenced a Boarding and Educational establishment in Kilmarnock. Elizabeth the youngest is with her, and they are succeeding very well. The have an excellent house in a New Street called Dundonald Road which with taxes costs them about £30 yearly. Their name and influence are extending, and they are now patronized by some of the best families in town. Christina and Janet have been in Old Cumnock for a year and a half -- an opening for a female Genteel school occurred in that place and they were invited to make trial of it. They have hitherto succeeded as well as we could expect; the field is limited, and there is not the same prospect as in Kilmarnock, yet they have had pretty good incouragement. When lately there, I called upon the ministers of the place, and a few of the prinicpal families, and was much gratified by the manner in which all spoke of their prudence, and the energy and success with which they conducted their little Seminary. 

Mary remains with us, to assist her Mother, and teaches the Two Misses who board with us. Thus you see that all our family, (six in number) are employed in teaching in one department or another; I earnestly pray that God may bless their labours, and make them all instrumental in winning souls to Christ. Their Mother and I have certainly much cause for gratitude to God who enabled us to give them an education fitting them for the honourable places in society which they now occupy.

Your sister Mrs. Woodburn is still in life so far as I know. I called for her in the course of last year; she was frail and complained of want of sight, but otherwise in ordinary health. She lives with Gaven Lawsen her Son in Law and Daughter, and they seemed to be in comfortable circumstances. If I remember right, Mrs. Dow was keeping some person's house near Loudon and John Shields was said to have a charge about the parks and plantations connected with the Castle. At the same time I am not sure if I heard any thing of them since I last wrote you. James Dow is still in India. His wife wrote to the War Office some time ago, and learned that he had survived the dreadful Destruction of human life occasioned by the late wars in that country. He wrote once after the first engagements he had been in, and promised to send a little money to assist his children, but she never heard more from him. There is reason to fear that the army has not much improved his habits. His wife is one of my dearest earthly friends and I think an eminent Christian. She has now left the office of Matron in Paisley Jail and has got a much more desireable situation in a "House of Refuge" near Liverpool. Her daughter is with her, and her Son is in a stationer's shop in Edinburgh. I saw him on Monday last. When she left Paisley a meeting of a number of Ladies and of the respectable inhabitants was held and she was presented with upwards of Twenty volumes of valuable books as a token of respect for her Christian Character and usefulness.

The surviving members of Our family are much as they were. William Young is now very aged and frail, yet is able to wait upon the ordinances, he wife also survives. John of Meadowfoot is now also putting on the appearance of old age. He, his Son and family still prosper at Meadowfoot, but I often fear that the world has too great a hold of their affections. Helen and her husband William Hamilton now live at Kilbride. They left their place at Stobbieside, and commenced a small store or shop at Kilbride for the purpose of helping forward a little their two Grandchildren, the Rankens who came home from America. Christina and her husband James Hamilton and family continue were they were and are now prospering very much in the world. But they have had severe family affliction. You are aware that their eldest Daughter Ann died a considerable time ago after long affliction, which she bore with great Christian patience. The had much comfort at her death. About the end of June last, their next oldest daughter Christian also died. She was seized with stoppage in the Bowels, and consequent inflammation. She had very sore trouble which soon brought her down.

I saw her at the commencement of her trouble, but she was not then thought to be dying. The funeral letter followed me in a few days, at which I was much surprised. Their Oldest son William is still delicate, but he has been better a good deal this last summer. Their third Son James made a respectable marriage just a few days before his Sister took her troubles. He had got a farm near his father. I think our Sister Christina a well disposed person and she bears her affliction in a Christian Spirit. C's death was a heavy stroke to her Mother; she was a strong healthy young woman, and too the charge of their very large dairy consisting of about 30 cows.
Our Church in Scotland is, I think upon the whole, rather increasing, although (as with yourselves) all suffer fearfully by the voting question. Even our most popular Doctors admit that few or none ever apply to them for admission whose circumstances otherwise would allow them to use the Elective franchise. I believe the existence of the church is so much involved in the question that they almost feel inclined to make it a matter of forbearance; for my own part I cannot yet see how we can yield the point and at the same time maintain our distinctive standing. Perhaps Providence may open some door of relief. The great topics of interest for a time past, have been "The Exhibition" and the "Papish Aggression" with both of which I have no doubt you are quite familiar through the medium of the newspapers. The former was, I suppose, at least a harmless thing, and no doubt a source of great gratification to those who can afford to spend a little money. And the latter I trust will be over-ruled for good. The country has been aroused to consider more minutely the nature of popery. Courses of lectures have been delivered on the subject in all our large towns, and Ministers of all denominations have directed the minds of their people to the abominations of the system. Periodicals have also been started for the same end, and are ably conducted, and even our Legislators are beginning to see their folly in so long, giving so much countenance and support to the system.

The crops this year I think are, in generally, fully an average. The mysterious potatoe disease still prevails here as with you; it is supposed that about a third part of the crops this year may be lost, but as considerable breadth was planted and the crop plentiful, they are as yet moderate in price. The summer with short intervals of extreme heat was cold and the harvest late, but as the weather during harvest and since was unusually fine, all was got well secured. I was glad to hear good accounts of Mr. Henderson; he was an intimate acquaintance of mine and has sometimes assisted here. I shall never as long as I am able, give up my correspondence with you, and I hope that Alexander may see it to be both a privilege and a duty to write occasionally to your son; I shall again remind him of his duty ere long.

Having now nearly filled my paper, and exhausted my news, I must come to a conclusion. In you next let me know particularly to what stage Robert has advanced in his studies, when he expects to take license to preach, and whether I may ever expect to see him or any of you in Scotland. O that we may all meet at last in the better country where separation is unknown and where uninterrupted fellowship with God and with each other, shall be the position of all the blessed inhabitants for evermore. Mrs.. Young and Mary unite with me in the most sincere regards to you both and all the members of your family. Excuse this very ill written and imperfect letter, and with earnest Desire for your every good, I am, Dear Brother and Sister, your affectionate Brother, Hugh Young.

Hugh Young to Alex Shields dated Laurieston (Falkirk) July 7th, 1852

Dear Brother & Sister,
I would have written you some time ago, but I indulged this hope that I would have heard from you about this time. In your last, you complain that I had been long in writing, and there was certainly ground of complaint. I would not wonder if, before you get to the end of this, you should feel disposed to say as the Poet Burns said of his wains that "ane" more had been sent him than he wanted. I shall not keep you in suspense. Towards the end of last year, or early in the present one, our Brother John of
Meadowfoot and myself, had each a letter from the Inland Revenue office - Edinburgh - stating that either ignorantly or fraudulently the business of the Late Mr. Robert Young of Newmilns had been mismanaged by our Man of Business, viz the Late Mr. Murdoch of Kilmarnock. That the Inventory had been exhibited on an Eight pound stamp applicable to an Intestate estate. That the Inventory had not been Registered, and that the Legacy duty had not been paid. That the Legatees were liable for legal interest for the additional stamp of three pound, and for the Legacy duty since the period of his Widow's death. Moreover, that we were entirely at the mercy of the Lords of her Majesty's Treasury -- who might exact a fine of fifty pounds were they to act as "Law directs." 

You will see that the business at first assumed rather a serious aspect. Our Friends in the West requested me to take the management of the matter, and to get it settled as advantageously as possible. I immediately went to Edinburgh and was so fortunate as to get the gratuitous advice of a particular friend who is eminent in the legal profession. I got access to the man who is at the head of the office in Edinburgh, whom I found to be truly a Gentleman in the best sense of the word. He stated that at one time such matters were not very strictly looked after, but that the Government had found out such a vast number of cases either of fraud or mismanagement on the part of Country Lawyers that they had now gone to the opposite extreme, and had become almost as bad as the Spanish Inquisition only that the one tormented the purse whilst the other tormented the back.
He at once saw that there was no intended fraud on the part of the family, and in that case I need not be afraid of any penalty; and that he would correspond with their Lordships in regard to the hardship of the case, with a view to induce them to remit the interest, which by this time would have fully doubled the sum. I am happy to say that he was successful, and that ultimately I got the matter settled on the same terms as it would have been at the time of the Widow's death. Namely, by adding the three pound stamp and paying Nine pounds of Legacy Duty. Sometime ago I got the Discharge duly stamped at the Head office in
London, and it now lies at Meadowfoot, John being the proper representative of the family. There was also the expense of registration, &c, &c, but without specifying every separate item, and not counting a farthing for the days of toil and anxiety I had in the case, the whole outlay amounted to £13-13-0. You are aware that eight was the number of Legatees, so that the expense to each is £1-14-1&halfpenny. A number of the family however in consideration of the circumstances of Brother Frances Widow and family agreed to relieve her, and to divide the Sum by seven, which to each is exactly £1-19. From Andrew's Widow and Our Nephew in England I received only their proper share, so the burden presses a little heavier upon myself.

Now, Dear Friends, I have not forgotten, and I never can forget, the kindness you showed me, when I lived with you a part of the summer before I was licensed, and I hesitated long whether or not I would make the above statements to you, but ultimately thinking it was due to you to give a statement of the case, and in the full belief that you are now in easier circumstances than I am, I have written as you read above. As to a remittance or of what kind I leave entirely with you. If necessity does not require it, I shall never again say you owe me.
I beg now to state that almost immediately after I last wrote you I got intelligence of the Death of Mr. John Shields, at or near
Loudon Castle. I got no particulars as to the nature of his trouble, its duration, or the state of his mind in the prospect of death, but from his long course of Christian deportment, I have no doubt that he died in peace. About three weeks ago I was at Darvel and called upon your Sister Mrs. Woodburn. She enjoys good health, but is very feeble, and has in a great measure lost her sight, I understand she is very comfortable.
Mrs. Young of
Leelone (Frances's Widow) and her family, with the exception of the two married ones, are now in America. They sailed early in spring, and have reached her Brothers in safety. When I last saw them, James Woodburn spoke of making a visit to you, which probably he may do ere long.

You will be sorry to hear that your Sister in Law, My Dear Wife, has for a length of time in a very poor state of health. In the month of November last she had a slight shock of Paralysis. It did not affect her body beyond a slight numbness in her right arm and side, but it deprived her for a time of the power of articulation and has greatly affected her recollection. A considerable time after she had a second shock, when she was severely bled, and being much under the influence of Medicine, she is very weak. She is however improving, walks out a little and can look a little after the house, which is a great comfort. She has little or no suffering, her chief defect is in getting at the word or expression she wishes to use. She can read a little, and I hope is suitably exercised under her afflictions. The rest of the family are all well, and prospering at present. We anticipate some changes among them ere long, but as we met with painful disappointment on a former occasion, I shall say nothing now till the will of Providence be declared. 

I was truly grieved to learn when lately at Darvel that Alexander had never written to your Robert. I gave him a hearty scolding but what effect it may have I know not. Give my very kind regards to Mr. Robert, tell him to write me at his Leisure the progress of his studies &&. and if my son does not write him I shall, if I can hold a pen or see the paper before me….

As to myself, I may say that I am not very strong, and my sight though weak is not sensibly worse for some time. We had little or no business of importance at our late meeting of Synod, beyond the reports of Committees on Missionary operation &c. We have most delightful weather at present and there is the prospect of an abundant and early harvest. The country is not in a prosperous state at present, and the number who are emigrating to America and Australia &c are altogether unprecedented. I read a day or two ago that 1800 were waiting at Liverpool for shipment. And two weeks ago, the applications at an office in Edinburgh for passage to Australia were at the rate of five hundred per day. Excuse this very ill written and dull letter, my eye fails when I write long. Let us hear from you soon. All here unite in kindest regards to yourselves and family. I am your affectionate brother, Hugh Young

P.S. Some of the family are of the opinion that the Legacy Duty above spoken of was left with Mr. Murdoch, and that the fault of non-payment lay with him. Its receipt can not be found. He is long dead. It is doubtful whether he left any property behind him, and to have entered into any litigation with his Son would in all likelihood only have occasioned additional expense. Have you any recollection what was the sum each Legatee received? The Estate, according to the Inventor, was £360. I got the Commissioners to deduct the £60 in name of death bed and funeral charges, and expence of administration. So that this Legacy duty was charged upon the neat £300, which at 3 per cent was £9-- H. Young. 

Hugh Young, second letter of Sept. 16, 1852 to Alexander Shields.

My Dear Brother and Sister,
Young very friendly letter of the 17th August was received on the Second Instant. My last letter was written at different times with the view of being dated at the time of the dispatch, which seems to have been overlooked, but from the time you received it, its passage must have been short. As Alexander was here on occasion of his Sister's marriage on the 31st Aug.t I exchanged with him on Sabbath the 29th of that month. I called for your Sister Mrs. Woodburn. I found her walking in the garden, she has ordinary health, and only complains of the infirmity of age and great weakness of sight. She was clean, well clothed and had every appearance of comfort. Alexander had left this just before your letter arrived, and as I knew he was to be in
Galston in the discharge of official duty in a few days after, I immediately wrote him, and the end of last week I had a letter from him in which he says (Inter alia) "I was at Galston on Tuesday baptizing a child to William Erskine, and among others present was the Mrs. Dow referred to in Mr. A. Shields's letter. The money sent to her arrived safe and punctually. William Erskine had written acknowledging the receipt of it, but being laid up with small Pox for nearly two months just after the American letter came to hand, they could not have received it when they wrote you." 

It is likely that long ere now you have got Mr. Erskine's letter of acknowledgement -- at any rate, the above will show that all is right. I was sorry to learn that your Son Robert had not been so well for some time. He ought to go home and take ease and rest both of body and mind for a considerable period. Fatigue and anxiety both tend to nourish his complaint. You do not say to what stage he has arrived in his studies, or whether he has yet received License to preach. 

I am grieved to say that my Dear Wife has not made the progress which we anticipated when I last wrote you. She has had no new attack, and her bodily strength is nothing worse but her mind continues weak, and her power of utterance is not improved. She is very nervous, timid, and easily agitated. She rises generally about midday goes out for a considerable time when the state of the weather permits, and sits up till after Evening worship. She wishes to be much in prayer, and to have the Scriptures and other helps read to her, so that I hope she is by the grace of God and the guidance of the Holy Spirit preparing for a better world. May we all realize the sanctified use of affliction. We need your sympathy and prayers.

I posted for you the Falkirk Herald of this day fortnight past, from which (if it has arrived) you will have observed that our eldest Daughter Margaret was married on the 31st Augt. to a Mr. Mathie Merchant, Glasgow. He was in business in Kilmarnock till Whitsunday last, when he came to Glasgow. I do not know much of him personally, but all we have heard of his religious and business habits is favourable. The family have long been connected with our Church. The Father is dead, but the Mother and family occupy a large Farm in the parish of Riccarton. They lived at one period not far from Galston, and probably you may remember the old people. The are nearly related to the Lindsays of Tayburn. Christina and Elizabeth continue to conduct the Establishment at Kilmarnock. Janet remains alone at Old Cumnock and Mary is at home.

We have had unusually warm weather, and a fine harvest and a very abundant crop is nearly secured. In general, however, the Potatoes, which at one period were very promising, have become completely diseased. I shall not be able to preserve a seed in my whole garden. A Bank Check is I think quite a safe way of transmitting money between the two countries. As the payment of letters before hand is now optional, I did not pay my last, under the idea that though a paid letter may be equally safe with an unpaid one, yet should the letter be lost, the postage would be saved. I shall pay this in return for your last. Remembering nothing farther of importance, I shall now conclude this short and very ill written scrawl. Anna and Mary unite with me in Sincere Christian regards for yourselves and your family. I ever am your affectionate Brother, Hugh Young.

H. Young to Alexander Shields May 12, 1853 from Laurieston by Falkirk.

Dear Brother & Sister,
I have no doubt that you are longing to hear from me, and perhaps think me undutiful in being so long of writing to you. A variety of causes have occasioned the delay. Soon after I received your last letter, I enclosed it in one to Alexander, stating that when opportunity offered he might state to Mr. James Anderson [born at
Mossend, married Mary dau. of Thomas Morton, emigrated to Craftsbury from Skellyhill Farm at this time] what you said regarding the Two Pounds, or if he thought proper he might show him the letter. When Alexander stated the case to him, he said he expected to hear from his Father, and would be guided by the instructions he might receive from him. Alexander met him occasionally, and when the matter was alluded to, the answer given was that he had not yet heard from America. A few weeks ago, however, he called for Alexander and said he had then received instructions to leave with him Two pounds for me which he would do before he sailed. This notice was immediately sent to me, and I once thought of writing you what Mr. Anderson had consented to do, but as the time of Mr. A's sailing was then so near, on second thoughts, I delayed till I could say that the money had been paid. Ultimately Mr. A showed Alex.r a few lines which he had from you, and paid the money, which Alexander brought with him when he came to assist at our communion on the first of this month, so that the matter is completely settled. Mr. Anderson holds an acknowledgement from Alexander for the sum, which he will likely have presented before this reaches you. Alexander says that he was highly amused with the prodigious caution with which the matter was conducted and seems to think that if Mr. Anderson manages all his business in a similar manner, there is not a Yankee in all America that will be able to overreach him.

We had the Communion of Sabbath week past, and had immediately to set off for Glasgow to attend the Meeting of Synod which commenced on Monday, the Second. The Sacrament passed over very comfortably; I was assisted by Alex.r and a Mr. Morrison, a native of this village now settled at Ekdalemoor and Ettrick. We were favoured with good and suitable discourses from them, and I trust good has been done. We were all glad to learn that yourselves and your family were well, and prospering at the time you last wrote, and that Mr. Robert's health was so far restored as to enable him to take a situation, and that he had got one so favourable. I sincerely hope he finds himself comfortable, and able to be useful to himself and others. I should like to know his particular state of advancement, whether he has yet been licensed, or when he expects to be so.

My Dear Wife is still spared to us, but she has not improved during the winter and spring. She continues very weak, and I fear has been rather losing strength of late. Her recollection and power of conversation continue much the same. She gets up about Midday and can in general sit up till ordinary bed time, and can walk, read, sew and knit a little, and can go through the house and see that all things are kept in proper order. She went out to Church on the afternoon of the Fast day and Saturday and was in hope to enjoy the ordinance of Our Lords Supper, but the fatigue had been too great, and she was disappointed. She got so unwell on Saturday night and Sabbath morning that she was unable to go out. She was however so far recovered on Monday that I felt warranted to go off to Synod. She however got very unwell on Monday night and was so ill on Tuesday that Mary and others about her got greatly alarmed and wrote immediately for me to come home. She is rather improving, but is still very weak. I had an attack of Rheumatism during winter, and a rather severe cold a few weeks ago, otherwise I have enjoyed health since I last wrote you, and have been enabled to go on with my work in the ordinary way. Our family are all well at present, and enjoying a measure of prosperity, for which we have great thankfulness. 

I have heard little of our relations of late. Uncle William, though frail is going about, and able to attend church, John of Meadowfoot I am told has fallen off greatly this winter, and has seldom been at church. I am expected to assist at Darvel on the Second Sabbath of June when I will likely see Mrs. Woodburn and other relations, and any thing worth communicating may be noticed, should I be spared to write again. I have almost nothing to communicate from Synod (as I expected) being recalled from it so abruptly. Our Missionary reports are now more cheering, both from New Zealand and from one of the South Sea Islands, where we have a Mr. Ingles labouring with success. The Church at home has rather gained than lost during the last two years, notwithstanding the strong tide of Emigration, by which all churches have suffered, and several congregations in other bodies have been broken up.

About a year ago a report reached me that Alexander Young of England, had or was about to sell off all and to Emigrate; that he and his brother were about to realize some money left by a relation of their Mother's in London, but how much it was and wither he has gone, I have never heard; and it may be I never will.
We have had a season of great Commercial prosperity in this land, and all who choose to labour may realize the necessaries and even many of the Comforts of life. It has at the same time been a very trying season for aged and delicate people and there has been great mortality. During the months of November, December and January we had almost constant heavy rain, and the country was deluged to an extent seldom known. We had afterward intense frost and in many places very deep snow. The Spring has been cold and variable, and vegetation is far behind. Even at present we have snow and hail showers, and several mornings this week the distant hills were deeply covered with snow to their base, which is rather unusual at this time of the season. How far are you from New York? And what would be the probable expense of a journey from the one place to the other? I put these questions, not with the most distant hope of ever being in America myself, But a near relation has the prospect of being in New York next season, and I think would be delighted to take a tour the length of Vermont. This is a miserably written scrawl, and will try your patience to make it. I know you will excuse it, my sight gets more imperfect: We shall be glad to hear from you as soon as your convenience may allow.

Mrs. Young and Mary unite with me in most affectionate regards to yourselves and all the members of your family. I am, Dear Brother & Sister, Your affectionate brother, Hugh Young. TO: A. Shields, East Craftsbury, Vermont, N. America. 

Hugh Young to A.Shields June 27, 1855 From Laurieston by Falkirk.

Dear Brother & Sister,
Your long, and much esteemed letter of March last reached this in safety on the Ninth of April. I have been longer in replying than I purposed, unavoidable hindrances have stood in the way. The sacrament of Our Lord's Supper was observed here soon after I got your letter. Then came on the meeting of Synod early in May, and since then I have assisted both at
Darvel and at Colmonele, which, with the ordinary duties here, have kept me fully engaged. I cannot now go through my work with the same rapidity as I did ten years ago; my sight fails, and then I must Pause for a time. When I wrote your Son, I had just recovered from a severe bilious attack, I was rather in bad humour, and rather irritated by insinuations of ignorance and unfaithfulness, so that I wrote him in a style which I now regret. Probably he has forwarded the letter to you. 

I wish you saw the Report of our last meeting of Synod, published in the June No. of our Magazine, as the Reports of the different Committees; I think would convince you that yet there are not a few talented and labouring and faithful men in the Ref'd Presbyterian Church in Scotland. During Spring I had a return of the bilious complaint, and was so long under the influence of Medicine, that my strength was greatly reduced. I still feel a weakness in my limbs, and cannot make long journeys at the time, otherwise I am in good health, and more vigourous than for a considerable time past.

My Dear wife who enjoys at present pretty good health, is quite active in looking after household matters, but she has not, (and probably never will) regain perfect recollection, and the full power of utterance. She is however much better and stronger than I ever expected to see her. Our family at present are all well, and enjoying a measure of prosperity. Margaret and her husband are well, and have a fair business in Glasgow. They have now two very fine boys, Thomas & Hugh Young. Alexander is still unmarried, and so far as I know retains his popularity at Darvel. Christina and Janet are now in Paisley, and have a prosperous school there. Elizabeth the youngest, is at present here with us. Their Mother requires the assistance of one of them as we have still two Boarders. 

About two years ago, I alluded to the probability of a friend being in New York and might take a run to see you. I had in view, our own daughter Mary. A young man, Mr. William Hardie, to whom she was espoused, went out to New York, and was succeeding in business very well, and arrangements were fully made for her going out to him, when his health failed, and after lingering on for a time, he was advised to return to Scotland which he did. He soon recovered and got into a good situation at the Carron Iron works, and they were married a considerable time ago, and live about three miles from us. They at present are well, and we see them almost weekly.

In your letter you mention that My Dear Sister had frequent ailments, and that there had been also affliction in your family otherwise. Especially you mention the case of Agnes, besides her own personal affliction, the loss of their Twins would be a great trial to her. "Whom the Lord Loveth he Chasteneth." "O may we rank among those whom he corrects for their profit, that they may be partakers of his holiness." We were truly glad to learn that your family otherwise were well and prosperous, and that you were increased to a goodly number. It is also pleasing to find that you have been able to make such an arrangement of your property as left you comparatively at ease in your advanced years. I suppose by this time Mr. Robert will be licensed, and a more popular preacher than you seemed to expect.

In my letter to your son, I stated that, so far as I was aware the only change among near relations, since the death of our Dear Sister Christina, was that of her son William who had been in a Delicate state of health. I have now to state that our very worthy Xtian Brother William died on Sabbath May 6th at the advanced age of 90. He was a lively Christian, I went and saw him very shortly before his death, and was greatly Delighted, and I trust edified by his conversation. In him, Alexander has lost a sincere friend and a wise counsellor. The funeral took place during the sitting of Synod, I could not attend it, but I exchanged with Alex the following Sabbath, and endeavoured to improve the event by preaching to the Congregation and relations from the words of the Apostle Peter where, speaking of Christ as a "Chief Corner Stone, Elect, precious"… He says I Eph.1:7, "Unto you therefore who believe he is precious." 

Of Alexander Young, England, I heard nothing for a long time, but his Brother John was with us a few days lately, and he says Alexander did not succeed in Farming, and that he is now in business in NewCastle upon Tyne. He says he has a grocer's Shop and he thinks is doing well. They got lately each about Six hundred pounds left by a relation of their Mother's, long in London. There is something far from dutiful in Alexander, he never writes to a relation, notwithstanding what I and other did for him. John is a strange person, you are aware that at one time he was quite a profligate, one of a gang of strolling play actors. He was afterwards a Teacher; then for a time a Methodist preacher, then a Teacher again. He is now travelling for an extensive Manufacturing Company in New Castle. He is said to be now very steady and getting up in the world. He is at present occupying his leisure time in Studying Prophecy and speaks with as much confidence of the progress and issue of the present war, and of the Downfall of Popery and Mohammedanism as if he had been a Disciple of John in the Island of Patmos. When here lately, he spoke and prayed like one under the influence of the truth. May it be so… .

I think I mentioned in a former letter that Helen Young had left Paisley, where she was for several years honourably and usefully employed as Matron of the County prison and had gone to Liverpool to be Matron of a house of refuge, where she has less charge and larger pay, and every way a better situation. I think her an Eminent Xtian most useful and beloved by all who have the honour of their acquaintance. Her son and daughter are both in Liverpool -- steady, excellent young persons. Their father, James Dow, so far as is known, is still alive in the army (East Indies). She never hears from him unless it has been since her last letter to me.

Old Meadowfoot is getting frail, but was enjoying health, and was able to be at Church when I was in Darvel in May. William Hamilton and Aunt Helen were here a few nights lately; they were both wonderfully well and vigorous. I believe our Church in Scotland is not increasing much at present, but she is not losing, which few, if any of the other churches can say. There has of late been so much Emigration that most of the Churches are greatly reduced in numbers. Our country congregations are generally smaller, but those in the large towns have greatly increased. Business is the idol of the day, and the most of our young go to the towns to pursue it. This congregation is greatly reduced, and were it not for our Boarders we could not make a living. But I trust that He who has brought us thus far, will not leave us, "when overtaken by old age." 

The present most destructive war [The Crimean War--"Charge of the Light Brigade" et cet.] still goes on, and I fear, we are only at the commencement of it. The investigation by a Committee of the House of Commons shows that there has been fearful mismanagement, and that the lives of thousands of our best Soldiers have been sacrificed by the negligence of those who should have anticipated their wants. 

Do not be long in writing our opportunities can now be few. Tell me how Robert gets on. He might write soon himself. Anne and Elizabeth join me in Sincere Xtian regards to you both and your family and theirs. Your affectionate brother, Hugh Young

Hugh Young to Alex. Shields, dated Laurieston Aug.t 13nth, 1856.

Dear Brother & Sister,
Your long looked for, and anxiously expected letter of the 14th & 16th June reached this in safety on the 8th of July. It gave us very great pleasure to learn that you were both well, and that though the infirmities of advanced life must necessarily increase, that still you enjoyed a considerable measure of health and vigour. We were also glad to know that your family were also still spared enjoying a measure of health and of worldly prosperity and that the number of your offspring still continued to increase; I trust I may indulge the good hope that you all enjoy a state of Spiritual health, and are growing in meetness for a better and endless state of being. 

I would have written you immediately in return, but had it not in my power. Since I received your letter, I have been three several Sabbaths assisting at a distance, and on one of them I had the charge of the Communion in a vacant congregation. But a more formidable obstacle often crosses my path and lays effectual restraint upon me. You are aware that some years ago, I lost (through Disease) the sight of my right eye. For a long time it gave me almost no pain, but of late it is otherwise. It is now very much subject to inflammation, and when I read or write for a length of time together, the pain becomes so great, and the discharge of water from the eye so large that I am put to a stand till I get a sleep or a lengthened period of rest. The consequence is there are weeks when I can write no more than is absolutely necessary to get over the Sabbath with a measure of propriety; and I am glad to say that so far as I know my public labours, both here and elsewhere are acceptable, although I have reason to apprehend that the close of my public usefulness is not far distant. Beyond what I suffer from my eye, my general health is pretty good, and when I can give it ease I do not suffer much from it; and it is a matter of great thankfulness that the sight of the left eye is not worse, but rather improved. 

I am happy to say that Mrs. Young has had good health all last winter and up till the present time, and is better and more active than at one time we ever expected to see her. Her recollection is never fully recovered, and she is sometimes a little defective in utterance, though otherwise she is well and her mind quite vigorous. Our family so far as we know are all enjoying health, and a measure of outward prosperity, and with one or two exceptions are in similar circumstances as when I wrote you last year. 

Mary and her husband (William Hardie) have a fine stout little boy. They live about three miles distant, and he has a very good situation at Carron. Margaret and her husband (John Mathie) are still in Glasgow. Their Second little boy (Hugh Young, My name-son) died at New Year day last; he was for a time a fine healthy child and gave indication of great strength of mind, but he caught cold, which so affected his lungs that his strength gradually wore away till death ensued. Whether from the name or otherwise, I was greatly attached to him, and his death very deeply affected me. Their other boy Tommy is a healthy stirring little fellow, and I fear since his brother's death has been rather too much indulged especially by his father.

Alexander had Rose [Erysipelas] in the face in May last and for four Sabbaths was laid aside from preaching. He is now quite well, and so far as I can judge from observation, the congregation at Darvel continues to prosper. He is still unmarried, but he has intimated to us that he intends to get married soon, and the person of his choice is a Miss Helen Reid, grand daughter to old Mr. Reid Late of Newton Stewart, and her Mother is sister to the Late and present Professor Symington [of Paisley?]. Her Father, Mr. James Reid, has been in Glasgow for forty years, and has for a long time been an extensive Iron Merchant, and is said to have amassed great wealth. They have just two Daughters, the Elder one is already married to a Son of the Late Rev. Mr. Fairley of Glasgow. I have long been intimate in the family, and have reason to believe that Helen herself is a very well educated, amiable, and pious young woman. Should the marriage take place, the connection will be highly respectable. I understand the young people themselves are for this marriage in October; but as they live in the country, and Mr. Reid is in business all day in Glasgow, Mr. Reid fears the loneliness of the dreary months of Winter, and would wish it put off till March.

Christina and Elizabeth are in Paisley and are getting on very well with their Boarding and Educational establishment. The have their vacation at present, and are here with us.

Janet, for the last twelve months, has been at home assisting her Mother, but we are made to understand that she is likely to leave us about the end of this year. It appears that when at Old Cumnock where she taught for some years she gained the affection of a Mr. White, a young man of a respectable family in the place, and who has since become the Manager of the Branch of the Royal Bank there; and as he has a house in connection with the Bank, he wishes the marriage about Christmas. These things, however, are only in prospect, and we may meet with disappointments: we have met with them ere now, and may have to meet them again. [All, in fact, worked out]

I have heard of no particular change our relations in this country since I last wrote you. Brother John of Meadowfoot is getting rather infirm, and has fallen very much off this season. I saw him in Church and spoke with him in May. I preached in Darvel last month. His son said he was not able to be out that day, and as I had to leave on Monday, I did not see them. There is a throng young family again at Meadowfoot: I think three sons and three daughters. I saw also Sister Helen in May. She and her husband William Hamilton were then in health; they now live at Browncastle near their eldest son William, who is a very prosperous Farmer in that place.

Our Sister Christina's family are getting married and are dispersing about their neighborhood, but I have to some extent lost sight of them since their Mother's death, so far as I know they are all respectable and prospering. When lately at Darvel I entirely forgot to enquire for your Sister Mrs. Dow, but so far as I know she is still alive and I think keeps house with some person at Galston or Loudon. Her Daughter in law, Helen Young is still in Liverpool; Matron in a house of Refuge, and is exceedingly respected. In their annual report lately published in a Newspaper, her management and usefulness were spoken of in terms of highest admiration. Her son and daughter are both in Liverpool. Janet is rather delicate, but was rather stronger of late. She and her Mother were in Scotland in June, but had not time to come this length. John is in a good situation in Liverpool, and as he is a very steady young man, I hope he will get "a head" as you Americans say. 

The part of your letter respecting your Son Robert I read with deep interest. It appears he has met with opposition which I hope will be overruled for his good, and that he will prove an able and faithful minister of the Gospel. As you do not say what his views respecting Geology were, that were objected to, of course I cannot say whether they were right or wrong. The study of Geology has not hitherto been considered as essential in this country, in as much as our Students and Preachers are not examined upon it; At the same time I think it an important and interesting study, and highly useful to a Minister. The construction of the earth, the variety, the formation, and the properties of its immensely varied strata, all manifest forth the wisdom, the power, and the goodness of the Creator, as much if not even more than what we behold upon its surface. A few years ago some pretenders to Philosophy (But falsely so called) attempted to overturn the Mosaic account of the creation, and hence the inspiration of the Divine record; but the attempt only brought into the field of controversy a few Master Minds who have fully proved the truth of the scripture account, and that it is perfectly in accordance with all the discoveries of modern science.

Had Mr. Wilson, your late Minister, no previous grudge at Robert, which might lead him to take advantage of a doubtful expression? But I write in ignorance, except what your letter states. I shall be most glad to hear that Robert soon obtains a fixed charge, and is prospering in the work of the Ministry. The letter of your Synod's Committee dated June 1st 1855 Together with the duplicate copy of a letter dated May 1853 which never officially reached us, were read in our last meeting of Synod, and an answer has been sent, which I hope may prove satisfactory, and tend to provide the friendly intercourse which has so long been maintained between the two churches. I think the predominant feeling here is in favour of your branch of the Church, at the same time when Ministers from the other branch come over certified as good, talented, and holy men, and who say that they adopt without exception our Testimony, many of the Brethern here do not see why they should be excluded from their Pulpits. And I am perfectly sure that should any of your Ministers honour us with a visit, they would be most cordially received. I really wish some of them would come and attend a meeting of our Synod, and then judge, whether we have departed from the Standards of the Covenanter Church. I met lately with a Mr. McAlley of Philadelphia, who I understand has preached in some of the Pulpits in this country.

We have had rather a cold and wet season till of late. I learn there is generally an abundant crop on the ground, but the harvest will be late. Excuse the very many blunders in this hasty Epistle. Confine it to your own family, it is not for the public Eye. Be sure to write soon again. Our opportunities cannot now be many. All here unite in kindest regards to you both and to all the members of your family.
I am your affectionate Brother, Hugh Young.

Hugh Young to Alex. Shields dated Laurieston, Falkirk April 17, 1857

Dear Brother and Sister,
Your long and very friendly letter of the 26th February reached this safely on the 21st. of March. I would have written you immediatly, but I had to go from home on official duty and was other wise so much engaged as to render it inconvenient. The Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Scotland meets on Monday this 4th of May, and the ordinance of the Lord's Supper is to be dispensed in this place on the Sabbath immediately preceding, and I once thought of not writing you till I could give you the news of the Synod, but on Second thoughts I have judged it expedient to embrace this present opportunity. Your beloved Sister Mrs. Dow departed this life about six or seven weeks ago, I think about the end of February, I did not get the precise date. She had been in a very weakly state for a length of time, but I have go no account of the last days of their life; but from her previous life and conversation we may hope that through grace all was peace. 
Since writing the above I have got a letter to attend the Funeral of Margaret Gaudie the widow of our late Brother William. Our kindred and acquaintances are dropping off one by one. Our time cannot now be far distant: O that through infinite mercy and grace we may be prepared for the great and solemn change. It gave us all much pleasure and satisfaction to learn that you both were so well, and in the enjoyment of comfort, and that your family were at the time well and prospering. I sincerely trust that Mr. Robert may be soon stationed in one of the towers of Fin [or Sin, or Zin -- neither the allusion nor the orthography is certain] and that he may prove a faithful, laborious, and successful Labourer in the Church.

I am happy to say that we are all in an ordinary measure of health at present. Mrs. Young has stood the winter and spring remarkably well, and may be said to have enjoyed good health. She is quite active, can knit and sew, and look after the affairs of the household, but never fully recovers her speech. We can always make out what she says, though strangers are sometimes at a loss. My weak, or rather blind eye, troubles me a good deal, and gets inflamed when I read or write long at a time. But the other one is no worse, and enables me to go on much in the usual way, as to the discharge of public duty, though I now feel considerable infirmity particularly in walking. But the end of the journey is Drawing near.

By the Falkirk Herald you heard of Janet's marriage. Mr. White is a writer and has the management of the Branch of the Royal Bank at old Cumnock, and I think, a very good, well principled young man. You mention that you had also heard of Alexander's marriage. I may mention that his wife is a Grand Daughter of Old Mr. James Reid who was Minister in Galloway and Brother to the Rev. John Reid of Laurieston. Her own Father, Mr. James Reid came to Glasgow upwards of Forty years ago, and has been very successful in business, and is supposed to be wealthy. Her mother is sister to the Late and present Professor Symington. And she herself is, we think, a very excellent and good well educated Young Woman. We all think Alex has been very judicious in his choice of a wife and has been well directed. I hope it will tend to increase his usefulness. Mrs. Mathie and Mrs. Hardie and their families are much as they were. I think Mary (Mrs. Hardie) had a Daughter since I wrote you last. Christina, with an assistant, carries on the Establishment at Paisley, and are succeeding remarkably well. Elizabeth came home at the time of Janet's Marriage to assist her Mother and to conduct the Education of two or three young Female Boarders which we have. 

When lately at Darvel, I went as far as Meadowfoot where there is again a large thriving young family. I found our Brother John in good bodily health, but very infirm, much Bowed down, and very hard of hearing, and I fear too much attached to this present world. The day became exceedingly stormy and I was unable to go to Brown Castle [almost 4 miles of narrow steep road] where our Sister Helen and her Husband now reside with their Oldest Son William. I heard there, that Helen was not very well, being afflicted with Difficulty in breathing. I have heard nothing of them since. And of James Hamilton and his family, I have heard very little for a long time.

I am very sorry that you have had the gospel so seldom preached to you of late, but hope you may be successful ere long in getting another minister, "to go out and in before you, and to break the bread of life among you." It would doubtless be a great comfort to you in your old age, to have a pious faithful and affectionate Minister calling occasionally upon you, and addressing to you a word in season. Since I last wrote you, there have been important and solemn changes in our Church in Scotland. On the 6th of November last, the Rev. Dr. Bates of Glasgow was removed by death and in a few days after both the Rev. Robert Winning of Eaglesham and Rev. Mr. McKinlay of Renton were called to rest from their labours. They were all three much respected in the Church, and very useful and Labourious. Dr. Bates was especially so being secretary of our Missionary Committee and conducted the Missionary correspondence. During the last year a number of young men have been licensed to preach the Gospel, and we had several ordinations. A Mr. Berry who joined our Church from the original Seceders some years ago, has been placed at Wick, a town in the far North of Scotland. Alexander McLeod Symington, youngest son of Professor William Symington, has been ordained at Dumfries left vacant by Mr. McDiarmid coming to Glasgow. And a Mr. Ramage has been ordained at Kilmarnock. A Mr. Bates, Nephew of the late Dr. Bates, has accepted a call to New Cumnock and will likely be ordained soon after the meeting of Synod. Dr. Symington's congregation -- Glasgow -- have called his eldest son (presently at Castle Douglass) to be his assistant and successor; this will be determined at the Synod. The congregation at Renton have called a Mr. Hamilton, one of our Preachers, and the congregation in Glasgow vacant by the Death of Dr. Bates are on the eve of calling the same person, which being competing calls from different Presbyteries will fall to be presented by Synod.

Last summer was cold and wet, and the harvest was late, and I learn that the quality of the different kinds of grain is rather inferior, but there was a great bulk on the ground, and as there have been heavy importations the prices have been falling. We have had rather a disagreeable winter. The weather has run in extremes. We had most intense frost sometime and during March unusually heavy rains; there is now an improvement, and the sowing is advancing.

It is true your American States are far from being in a satisfactory condition, I mean on the question of slavery. I sincerely trust that truth and justice will gradually prevail, and that without the horrors of revolution and extensive bloodshed the cause of freedom may be successful.

I hope you will write me again ere long, and say to your son Robert that I shall be most glad to have a letter from him, and I will attempt to give him a reply, even at the risk of laying myself open to the charge of unfaithfulness. As I remember nothing more that would be interesting to you at present, and as my sight fails me, as the hand writing abundantly indicates, I shall conclude at this time.

As you could easily command the time and the Means might you not take a summer's jaunt and see Old Scotland and the few relations that are yet spared? The tear drops from my eye when I write that I would go far to see my Dearest Sister. Mrs. Young and Bessie write in kindest regards to your selves and all the members of your family.

With sincere Christian affection, I am Your loving Brother,
(excuse many blunders) Hugh Young

Hugh Young to Mr. Alexander Shields, East Craftsbury March 9th, 1858
Stamps: 15 w/ triple bar above & below, 5 cents. Postmarked
Falkirk B MR9 58; Boston New York Packet Paid 8. Dated at Laurieston.

Dear Brother & Sister,
Your last kind letter was sent among friends in the west, and I have no distinct recollection of the date of it, but I am under the impression that I wrote you since I received it. Be that as it may, I feel it to be my duty to write you a few lines at this time, the chief object of which is to intimate the Death of our only surviving Brother John Young of
Meadowfoot, which took place on the 12th or 13th of last month. The funeral took place on Thursday the 18th which I attended. He had attained to 85 years of age, and retained his faculties till the end. He was occasionally at church till a few months ago, he was then in ordenly health going among the Cattle in his usual way, and with the exception of a little hardness of hearing was quite active. All his family except Helen (who is still at Liverpool) attended the funeral, and a number of grand children, some of them grown up to men and women--

The funeral was very numerously attended, and as the greater number occupied carriages, the procession was very lengthened. I saw our Sister at the Funeral. She looked healthy and stout, but complains of inability to walk much. Her husband William Hamilton was als present, he is in good health, but wears very considerably the marks of age. James Hamilton was not present. He and the members of his family who remain with him had recently the Small Pocks, and though recovering, were not able to be out. Some of the other members of the family attended, and I had the pleasure of speaking with them.

I am happy to say that Mrs. Young continues to enjoy a good measure of bodily health, and is quite active in looking after household matters. She walked lately to Carren, a distance of 3 miles, and home the same day. She has never fully recovered the use of her speach, and memory. As to myself I have enjoyed a measure of health since I last wrote you, though I now feel considerably the effects of age, especially in walking. My memory also is becoming defective, yet I am still able to go on somewhat in the usual way. You are aware that years ago I lost the sight of one eye, but I am happy and thankful to say that the sight of the other has so much improved that I can read and write without glasses, and have not had them on in the Pulpit for a number of months. I suppose by the middle of July next I shall have finished my 70th year, and cannot hope to be long useful in the Church on earth. Oh to be in readiness for entering the Church above! I have been admonished of late both by lessons from without, and by Symptoms of weakness from within. For a number of weeks I have had frequent bleedings at the nose, for three mornings just now it has returned every morning. The loss of blood together with the use of Medicine leaves me weak.

I am truly sorry to say that Mrs. Mathie, our Eldest Daughter, is in a very precarious state of health. She had a Second fine boy died in September last. The child was long delicate, and as she had often to rise with him and sit up during the night, She caught a bad cold which has reduced her to a very weak and I fear dangerous state. However, she is no worse these two last weeks and the Doctor hopes that when the weather gets a little more mild she may yet recover. Their oldest boy survives and is a very fine and promising child. The other members of our family are all well as far as we know. Mary has now three children. She had a Second boy lately and they have named him Hugh Young.

A Mr. James Brown, one of our Preachers, rather an odd character, recently visited America, but soon returned. In the course of last summer he called on our Daughter Janet (Mrs. White) at Cumnock and among other things stated that he had met with Mr. Robert Shields, Preacher, and spoke favourably of him and said that Mr. Shields had made him understand that he was to visit Scotland and spend some time among his relations in the old country; we were of course all in the expectation of seeing him and had no doubt he would make the manse at Laurieston his home while in the country. For many weeks I expected a letter stating that he had sailed, or that he had landed on the coast of Scotland. Now whether ever Mr. Robert intended to visit Scotland, or whether it was one of Mr. Brown's day dreams, I do not know, but hitherto we have neither heard nor seen more of the matter. Should my worthy Nephew think of crossing the Atlantic, I shall be most happy to see him, and take advantage of his aid so long as he may be with us.

This is not the season for ecclesiastical News. With us things are much as they were. The great prosperity for several years in the Mercantile world operated injuriously upon all our country congregations, while it tended to increase those in the towns. Probably the late tremendous crash in Banks and business may arrest for a time the rush of both young and old to town.

A Reformed Presbyterian Congregation has lately been organized in Liverpool, and Dr. Graham, once at Wishawtown, recently at Ayr, has been called, and tomorrow is to be inducted and formally to take possession of England again as Covenanted Ground. Excuse this short and ill written letter, and be sure to write soon. Make our kindest regards to all the members of your family, and that your and our declining years may be abundantly sustained by rich communication from the Ane Glorious Head of all "in whom it hath pleased the Father that all fulness should dwell," is the sincere prayer of Your Affectionate and only surviving Brother, Hugh Young.






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